Nikon Coolpix P520 vs. Fujifilm X-S1

Comparison

Coolpix P520 image
vs.
X-S1 image

 

Nikon Coolpix P520 Fujifilm X-S1
Megapixels
18.10 12.00
Max. resolution
4896 x 3672 4000 x 3000
Price
Amazon, B&H Photo, Adorama Amazon, B&H Photo, Adorama

Sensor

Sensor type
CMOS EXR CMOS
Sensor size
1/2.3" (~ 6.16 x 4.62 mm) 2/3" (~ 8.8 x 6.6 mm)
Sensor resolution
4906 x 3689  3995 x 3004 
Diagonal
7.70 mm  11.00 mm 
Surface area
28.46 mm²  58.08 mm² 
Sensor size comparison
Sensor size is generally a good indicator of the quality of the camera. Sensors can vary greatly in size. As a general rule, the bigger the sensor, the better the image quality.

Bigger sensors are more effective, because they have more surface area to capture light. An important factor when comparing digital cameras is also camera generation. Generally, newer sensors will outperform the older.

Learn more about sensor sizes »
Actual sensor sizes:
Nikon Coolpix P520
vs.
Fujifilm X-S1
 
Surface area:
Nikon Coolpix P520
Fujifilm X-S1
Difference: 29.62 mm² (104%)
Fujifilm X-S1 has approx. 104% more surface area than Nikon Coolpix P520.
Note: You are comparing cameras of different generations. There is a 2 year gap between Nikon Coolpix P520 (2013) and Fujifilm X-S1 (2011). All things being equal, newer sensor generations generally outperform the older.
Pixel pitch
1.26 µm  2.2 µm 
Pixel pitch tells you the distance from the center of one pixel (photosite) to the center of the next. It tells you how close the pixels are to each other.

The bigger the pixel pitch, the further apart they are and the bigger each pixel is. Bigger pixels tend to have better signal to noise ratio and greater dynamic range.
Pixel pitch
Nikon Coolpix P520
Fujifilm X-S1
Difference: 0.94 µm (75%)
Pixel pitch of Fujifilm X-S1 is approx. 75% higher than pixel pitch of Nikon Coolpix P520.
Pixel area
1.59 µm²  4.84 µm² 
Pixel or photosite area affects how much light per pixel can be gathered. The larger it is the more light can be collected by a single pixel.

Larger pixels have the potential to collect more photons, resulting in greater dynamic range, while smaller pixels provide higher resolutions (more detail) for a given sensor size.
Relative pixel sizes:
Nikon Coolpix P520
vs.
Fujifilm X-S1
Pixel area difference: 3.25 µm² (204%)
A pixel on Fujifilm X-S1 sensor is approx. 204% bigger than a pixel on Nikon Coolpix P520.
Pixel density
63.43 MP/cm²  20.61 MP/cm² 
Pixel density tells you how many million pixels fit or would fit in one square cm of the sensor.

Higher pixel density means smaller pixels and lower pixel density means larger pixels.
Pixel density
Nikon Coolpix P520
Fujifilm X-S1
Difference: 42.82 MP/cm² (208%)
Nikon Coolpix P520 has approx. 208% higher pixel density than Fujifilm X-S1.
To learn about the accuracy of these numbers, click here.

Other specifications

Crop factor
5.62  3.93 
Total megapixels
18.91 n/a
Effective megapixels
18.10 12.00
Optical zoom
42x 26x
Digital zoom
Yes Yes
Iso
Auto, 80, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 2000, 3200 Auto, 100, 200, 250, 320, 400, 500, 640, 800, 1000, 1250, 1600, 2000, 2500, 3200, (4000, 5000, 6400, 12800 with boost)
Auto focus
Yes Yes
Manual focus
Yes Yes
Normal focus range
50 cm 30 cm
Macro focus range
1 cm 1 cm
Focal length (35mm equiv.)
24 -€“ 1000 mm 24 - 624 mm
Aperture priority
Yes Yes
Aperture
f3 - f5.9 f2.8 - f5.6
Aperture (35mm equiv.)
f16.9 - f33.2  f11 - f22 
Metering
Matrix, Center-weighted, Spot Multi, Average, Spot
Exposure compensation
± 2 EV in steps of 1/3 ±2 EV (at 1/3 EV steps)
Shutter priority
Yes Yes
Min. shutter speed
8 sec 30 sec
Max. shutter speed
1/4000 sec 1/4000 sec
Flash modes
n/a Auto, On, Off, Red-Eye, Slow Sync
Built-in flash
Yes Yes
External flash
No Yes
Viewfinder
Electronic Electronic
White balance presets
6 6
LCD display
Yes Yes
LCD size
3.2" 3"
LCD resolution
921,000 460,000
Min. image resolution
n/a 1536 x 1536
Selftimer
Yes Yes
Storage types
SD/SDHC/SDXC SD/SDHC/SDXC
USB
USB 2.0 (480 Mbit/sec) USB 2.0 (480 Mbit/sec)
Batteries
Rechargeable Li-ion Battery EN-EL5 Lithium-Ion NP-95 rechargeable battery & charger
Weight
550 g 920 g
Dimensions
125.2 x 84.1 x 101.6 mm 135x107x149 mm
Year
2013 2011



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Diagonal

Diagonal is calculated by the use of Pythagorean theorem:
Diagonal =  w² + h²
where w = sensor width and h = sensor height

Nikon Coolpix P520 diagonal

The diagonal of Nikon Coolpix P520 image sensor is not 1/2.3 inch as you might expect, but approximately two thirds of that value. If you want to know why, see sensor sizes.

w = 6.16 mm
h = 4.62 mm
Diagonal =  6.16² + 4.62²   = 7.70 mm

Fujifilm X-S1 diagonal

The diagonal of Fujifilm X-S1 image sensor is not 2/3 inch as you might expect, but approximately two thirds of that value. If you want to know why, see sensor sizes.

w = 8.80 mm
h = 6.60 mm
Diagonal =  8.80² + 6.60²   = 11.00 mm


Surface area

Surface area is calculated by multiplying the width and the height of a sensor.

Nikon Coolpix P520 surface area

Width = 6.16 mm
Height = 4.62 mm

Surface area = 6.16 × 4.62 = 28.46 mm²

Fujifilm X-S1 surface area

Width = 8.80 mm
Height = 6.60 mm

Surface area = 8.80 × 6.60 = 58.08 mm²


Pixel pitch

Pixel pitch is the distance from the center of one pixel to the center of the next measured in micrometers (µm). It can be calculated with the following formula:
Pixel pitch =   sensor width in mm  × 1000
sensor resolution width in pixels

Nikon Coolpix P520 pixel pitch

Sensor width = 6.16 mm
Sensor resolution width = 4906 pixels
Pixel pitch =   6.16  × 1000  = 1.26 µm
4906

Fujifilm X-S1 pixel pitch

Sensor width = 8.80 mm
Sensor resolution width = 3995 pixels
Pixel pitch =   8.80  × 1000  = 2.2 µm
3995


Pixel area

The area of one pixel can be calculated by simply squaring the pixel pitch:
Pixel area = pixel pitch²

You could also divide sensor surface area with effective megapixels:
Pixel area =   sensor surface area in mm²
effective megapixels

Nikon Coolpix P520 pixel area

Pixel pitch = 1.26 µm

Pixel area = 1.26² = 1.59 µm²

Fujifilm X-S1 pixel area

Pixel pitch = 2.2 µm

Pixel area = 2.2² = 4.84 µm²


Pixel density

Pixel density can be calculated with the following formula:
Pixel density =  ( sensor resolution width in pixels )² / 1000000
sensor width in cm

You could also use this formula:
Pixel density =   effective megapixels × 1000000  / 10000
sensor surface area in mm²

Nikon Coolpix P520 pixel density

Sensor resolution width = 4906 pixels
Sensor width = 0.616 cm

Pixel density = (4906 / 0.616)² / 1000000 = 63.43 MP/cm²

Fujifilm X-S1 pixel density

Sensor resolution width = 3995 pixels
Sensor width = 0.88 cm

Pixel density = (3995 / 0.88)² / 1000000 = 20.61 MP/cm²


Sensor resolution

Sensor resolution is calculated from sensor size and effective megapixels. It's slightly higher than maximum (not interpolated) image resolution which is usually stated on camera specifications. Sensor resolution is used in pixel pitch, pixel area, and pixel density formula. For sake of simplicity, we're going to calculate it in 3 stages.

1. First we need to find the ratio between horizontal and vertical length by dividing the former with the latter (aspect ratio). It's usually 1.33 (4:3) or 1.5 (3:2), but not always. 22.8 × 15.5 sensor for example has a ratio of 1.47.

2. With the ratio (r) known we can calculate the X from the formula below, where X is a vertical number of pixels:
(X × r) × X = effective megapixels × 1000000    →   
X =  effective megapixels × 1000000
r
3. To get sensor resolution we then multiply X with the corresponding ratio:

Resolution horizontal: X × r
Resolution vertical: X

Nikon Coolpix P520 sensor resolution

Sensor width = 6.16 mm
Sensor height = 4.62 mm
Effective megapixels = 18.10
r = 6.16/4.62 = 1.33
X =  18.10 × 1000000  = 3689
1.33
Resolution horizontal: X × r = 3689 × 1.33 = 4906
Resolution vertical: X = 3689

Sensor resolution = 4906 x 3689

Fujifilm X-S1 sensor resolution

Sensor width = 8.80 mm
Sensor height = 6.60 mm
Effective megapixels = 12.00
r = 8.80/6.60 = 1.33
X =  12.00 × 1000000  = 3004
1.33
Resolution horizontal: X × r = 3004 × 1.33 = 3995
Resolution vertical: X = 3004

Sensor resolution = 3995 x 3004


Crop factor

Crop factor or focal length multiplier is calculated by dividing the diagonal of 35 mm film (43.27 mm) with the diagonal of the sensor.
Crop factor =   43.27 mm
sensor diagonal in mm


Nikon Coolpix P520 crop factor

Sensor diagonal in mm = 7.70 mm
Crop factor =   43.27  = 5.62
7.70

Fujifilm X-S1 crop factor

Sensor diagonal in mm = 11.00 mm
Crop factor =   43.27  = 3.93
11.00

35 mm equivalent aperture

Equivalent aperture (in 135 film terms) is calculated by multiplying lens aperture with crop factor (a.k.a. focal length multiplier).

Nikon Coolpix P520 equivalent aperture

Crop factor = 5.62
Aperture = f3 - f5.9

35-mm equivalent aperture = (f3 - f5.9) × 5.62 = f16.9 - f33.2

Fujifilm X-S1 equivalent aperture

Crop factor = 3.93
Aperture = f2.8 - f5.6

35-mm equivalent aperture = (f2.8 - f5.6) × 3.93 = f11 - f22


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