Nikon D7100 vs. Nikon D4

Comparison

D7100 image
vs.
D4 image

 

Nikon D7100 Nikon D4
Megapixels
24.10 16.20
Max. resolution
6000 x 4000 4928 x 3280
Price
Amazon, B&H Photo, Adorama Amazon, B&H Photo, Adorama

Sensor

Sensor type
CMOS CMOS
Sensor size
23.5 x 15.6 mm 36 x 23.9 mm
Sensor resolution
6032 x 3995  4945 x 3275 
Diagonal
28.21 mm  43.21 mm 
Surface area
366.60 mm²  860.40 mm² 
Sensor size comparison
Sensor size is generally a good indicator of the quality of the camera. Sensors can vary greatly in size. As a general rule, the bigger the sensor, the better the image quality.

Bigger sensors are more effective, because they have more surface area to capture light. An important factor when comparing digital cameras is also camera generation. Generally, newer sensors will outperform the older.

Learn more about sensor sizes »
Actual sensor sizes:
Nikon D7100
vs.
Nikon D4
 
Surface area:
Nikon D7100
Nikon D4
Difference: 493.8 mm² (135%)
Nikon D4 has approx. 135% more surface area than Nikon D7100.
Pixel pitch
3.9 µm  7.28 µm 
Pixel pitch tells you the distance from the center of one pixel (photosite) to the center of the next. It tells you how close the pixels are to each other.

The bigger the pixel pitch, the further apart they are and the bigger each pixel is. Bigger pixels tend to have better signal to noise ratio and greater dynamic range.
Pixel pitch
Nikon D7100
Nikon D4
Difference: 3.38 µm (87%)
Pixel pitch of Nikon D4 is approx. 87% higher than pixel pitch of Nikon D7100.
Pixel area
15.21 µm²  53 µm² 
Pixel or photosite area affects how much light per pixel can be gathered. The larger it is the more light can be collected by a single pixel.

Larger pixels have the potential to collect more photons, resulting in greater dynamic range, while smaller pixels provide higher resolutions (more detail) for a given sensor size.
Relative pixel sizes:
Nikon D7100
vs.
Nikon D4
Pixel area difference: 37.79 µm² (248%)
A pixel on Nikon D4 sensor is approx. 248% bigger than a pixel on Nikon D7100.
Pixel density
6.59 MP/cm²  1.89 MP/cm² 
Pixel density tells you how many million pixels fit or would fit in one square cm of the sensor.

Higher pixel density means smaller pixels and lower pixel density means larger pixels.
Pixel density
Nikon D7100
Nikon D4
Difference: 4.7 MP/cm² (249%)
Nikon D7100 has approx. 249% higher pixel density than Nikon D4.
To learn about the accuracy of these numbers, click here.

Other specifications

Crop factor
1.53 
Total megapixels
24.71 16.60
Effective megapixels
24.10 16.20
Optical zoom
n/a n/a
Digital zoom
n/a No
Iso
Auto, 100 - 6400, Hi-1 (ISO 12800), Hi-2 (ISO 25600) 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, 6400, 12800 (204800 with boost)
Auto focus
Yes Yes
Manual focus
Yes Yes
Normal focus range
n/a n/a
Macro focus range
n/a n/a
Focal length (35mm equiv.)
n/a n/a
Aperture priority
Yes Yes
Aperture
n/a n/a
Aperture (35mm equiv.)
n/a  n/a 
Metering
Matrix, Center-weighted, Spot Centre weighted, Multi-segment, Spot
Exposure compensation
±5 (at 1/3 EV, 1/2 EV steps) ±5 (at 1/3 EV, 1/2 EV, 1 EV steps)
Shutter priority
Yes Yes
Min. shutter speed
30 sec 30 sec
Max. shutter speed
1/8000 sec 1/8000 sec
Flash modes
Auto, On, Off, Red-eye, Slow sync, Rear curtain Auto, On, Off, Front curtain, Rear curtain, Red-Eye, Slow Sync
Built-in flash
Yes No
External flash
Yes Yes
Viewfinder
Optical (pentaprism) Optical (pentaprism)
White balance presets
12 12
LCD display
Yes Yes
LCD size
3.2" 3.2"
LCD resolution
1,228,800 921,000
Min. image resolution
2400 x 1344 1600 x 1064
Selftimer
Yes Yes
Storage types
SD/SDHC/SDXC x 2 Compact Flash (Type I, XQD) x2
USB
USB 2.0 (480 Mbit/sec) USB 2.0 (480 Mbit/sec)
Batteries
Lithium-Ion EN-EL15 rechargeable battery & charger Lithium-Ion EN-EL18 rechargeable battery & charger
Weight
675 g 1340 g
Dimensions
135.5 x 106.5 x 76 mm 160 x 157 x 91 mm
Year
2013 2012



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Diagonal

Diagonal is calculated by the use of Pythagorean theorem:
Diagonal =  w² + h²
where w = sensor width and h = sensor height

Nikon D7100 diagonal

w = 23.50 mm
h = 15.60 mm
Diagonal =  23.50² + 15.60²   = 28.21 mm

Nikon D4 diagonal

w = 36.00 mm
h = 23.90 mm
Diagonal =  36.00² + 23.90²   = 43.21 mm


Surface area

Surface area is calculated by multiplying the width and the height of a sensor.

Nikon D7100 surface area

Width = 23.50 mm
Height = 15.60 mm

Surface area = 23.50 × 15.60 = 366.60 mm²

Nikon D4 surface area

Width = 36.00 mm
Height = 23.90 mm

Surface area = 36.00 × 23.90 = 860.40 mm²


Pixel pitch

Pixel pitch is the distance from the center of one pixel to the center of the next measured in micrometers (µm). It can be calculated with the following formula:
Pixel pitch =   sensor width in mm  × 1000
sensor resolution width in pixels

Nikon D7100 pixel pitch

Sensor width = 23.50 mm
Sensor resolution width = 6032 pixels
Pixel pitch =   23.50  × 1000  = 3.9 µm
6032

Nikon D4 pixel pitch

Sensor width = 36.00 mm
Sensor resolution width = 4945 pixels
Pixel pitch =   36.00  × 1000  = 7.28 µm
4945


Pixel area

The area of one pixel can be calculated by simply squaring the pixel pitch:
Pixel area = pixel pitch²

You could also divide sensor surface area with effective megapixels:
Pixel area =   sensor surface area in mm²
effective megapixels

Nikon D7100 pixel area

Pixel pitch = 3.9 µm

Pixel area = 3.9² = 15.21 µm²

Nikon D4 pixel area

Pixel pitch = 7.28 µm

Pixel area = 7.28² = 53 µm²


Pixel density

Pixel density can be calculated with the following formula:
Pixel density =  ( sensor resolution width in pixels )² / 1000000
sensor width in cm

You could also use this formula:
Pixel density =   effective megapixels × 1000000  / 10000
sensor surface area in mm²

Nikon D7100 pixel density

Sensor resolution width = 6032 pixels
Sensor width = 2.35 cm

Pixel density = (6032 / 2.35)² / 1000000 = 6.59 MP/cm²

Nikon D4 pixel density

Sensor resolution width = 4945 pixels
Sensor width = 3.6 cm

Pixel density = (4945 / 3.6)² / 1000000 = 1.89 MP/cm²


Sensor resolution

Sensor resolution is calculated from sensor size and effective megapixels. It's slightly higher than maximum (not interpolated) image resolution which is usually stated on camera specifications. Sensor resolution is used in pixel pitch, pixel area, and pixel density formula. For sake of simplicity, we're going to calculate it in 3 stages.

1. First we need to find the ratio between horizontal and vertical length by dividing the former with the latter (aspect ratio). It's usually 1.33 (4:3) or 1.5 (3:2), but not always. 22.8 × 15.5 sensor for example has a ratio of 1.47.

2. With the ratio (r) known we can calculate the X from the formula below, where X is a vertical number of pixels:
(X × r) × X = effective megapixels × 1000000    →   
X =  effective megapixels × 1000000
r
3. To get sensor resolution we then multiply X with the corresponding ratio:

Resolution horizontal: X × r
Resolution vertical: X

Nikon D7100 sensor resolution

Sensor width = 23.50 mm
Sensor height = 15.60 mm
Effective megapixels = 24.10
r = 23.50/15.60 = 1.51
X =  24.10 × 1000000  = 3995
1.51
Resolution horizontal: X × r = 3995 × 1.51 = 6032
Resolution vertical: X = 3995

Sensor resolution = 6032 x 3995

Nikon D4 sensor resolution

Sensor width = 36.00 mm
Sensor height = 23.90 mm
Effective megapixels = 16.20
r = 36.00/23.90 = 1.51
X =  16.20 × 1000000  = 3275
1.51
Resolution horizontal: X × r = 3275 × 1.51 = 4945
Resolution vertical: X = 3275

Sensor resolution = 4945 x 3275


Crop factor

Crop factor or focal length multiplier is calculated by dividing the diagonal of 35 mm film (43.27 mm) with the diagonal of the sensor.
Crop factor =   43.27 mm
sensor diagonal in mm


Nikon D7100 crop factor

Sensor diagonal in mm = 28.21 mm
Crop factor =   43.27  = 1.53
28.21

Nikon D4 crop factor

Sensor diagonal in mm = 43.21 mm
Crop factor =   43.27  = 1
43.21

35 mm equivalent aperture

Equivalent aperture (in 135 film terms) is calculated by multiplying lens aperture with crop factor (a.k.a. focal length multiplier).

Nikon D7100 equivalent aperture

Aperture is a lens characteristic, so it's calculated only for fixed lens cameras. If you want to know the equivalent aperture for Nikon D7100, take the aperture of the lens you're using and multiply it with crop factor.

Crop factor for Nikon D7100 is 1.53

Nikon D4 equivalent aperture

Aperture is a lens characteristic, so it's calculated only for fixed lens cameras. If you want to know the equivalent aperture for Nikon D4, take the aperture of the lens you're using and multiply it with crop factor.

Since crop factor for Nikon D4 is 1, the equivalent aperture is aperture.


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