Canon PowerShot S400 DIGITAL ELPH vs. Canon PowerShot G1 X Mark III

Comparison

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PowerShot S400 DIGITAL ELPH image
vs
PowerShot G1 X Mark III image
Canon PowerShot S400 DIGITAL ELPH Canon PowerShot G1 X Mark III
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Megapixels
4.00
24.20
Max. image resolution
2272 x 1704
6000 x 4000

Sensor

Sensor type
CCD
CMOS
Sensor size
1/1.8" (~ 7.11 x 5.33 mm)
22.3 x 14.9 mm
Sensor resolution
2306 x 1734
6026 x 4017
Diagonal
8.89 mm
26.82 mm
Sensor size comparison
Sensor size is generally a good indicator of the quality of the camera. Sensors can vary greatly in size. As a general rule, the bigger the sensor, the better the image quality.

Bigger sensors are more effective because they have more surface area to capture light. An important factor when comparing digital cameras is also camera generation. Generally, newer sensors will outperform the older.

Learn more about sensor sizes »

Actual sensor size

Note: Actual size is set to screen → change »
vs
1 : 8.77
(ratio)
Canon PowerShot S400 DIGITAL ELPH Canon PowerShot G1 X Mark III
Surface area:
37.90 mm² vs 332.27 mm²
Difference: 294.37 mm² (777%)
G1 X Mark III sensor is approx. 8.77x bigger than S400 DIGITAL ELPH sensor.
Note: You are comparing sensors of vastly different generations. There is a gap of 14 years between Canon S400 DIGITAL ELPH (2003) and Canon G1 X Mark III (2017). Fourteen years is a huge amount of time, technology wise, resulting in newer sensor being much more efficient than the older one.
Pixel pitch
3.08 µm
3.7 µm
Pixel pitch tells you the distance from the center of one pixel (photosite) to the center of the next. It tells you how close the pixels are to each other.

The bigger the pixel pitch, the further apart they are and the bigger each pixel is. Bigger pixels tend to have better signal to noise ratio and greater dynamic range.
Difference: 0.62 µm (20%)
Pixel pitch of G1 X Mark III is approx. 20% higher than pixel pitch of S400 DIGITAL ELPH.
Pixel area
9.49 µm²
13.69 µm²
Pixel or photosite area affects how much light per pixel can be gathered. The larger it is the more light can be collected by a single pixel.

Larger pixels have the potential to collect more photons, resulting in greater dynamic range, while smaller pixels provide higher resolutions (more detail) for a given sensor size.
Relative pixel sizes:
vs
Pixel area difference: 4.2 µm² (44%)
A pixel on Canon G1 X Mark III sensor is approx. 44% bigger than a pixel on Canon S400 DIGITAL ELPH.
Pixel density
10.52 MP/cm²
7.3 MP/cm²
Pixel density tells you how many million pixels fit or would fit in one square cm of the sensor.

Higher pixel density means smaller pixels and lower pixel density means larger pixels.
Difference: 3.22 µm (44%)
Canon S400 DIGITAL ELPH has approx. 44% higher pixel density than Canon G1 X Mark III.
To learn about the accuracy of these numbers, click here.



Specs

Canon S400 DIGITAL ELPH
Canon G1 X Mark III
Crop factor
4.87
1.61
Total megapixels
4.10
25.80
Effective megapixels
4.00
24.20
Optical zoom
3x
3x
Digital zoom
Yes
Yes
ISO sensitivity
Auto, 50, 100, 200, 400
Auto, 100-25600
RAW
Manual focus
Normal focus range
46 cm
10 cm
Macro focus range
5 cm
10 cm
Focal length (35mm equiv.)
36 - 108 mm
24 - 72 mm
Aperture priority
No
Yes
Max. aperture
f2.8 - f4.9
f2.8 - f5.6
Max. aperture (35mm equiv.)
f13.6 - f23.9
f4.5 - f9
Metering
Multi, Center-weighted, Spot
Multi, Center-weighted, Spot
Exposure compensation
±2 EV (in 1/3 EV steps)
±3 EV (in 1/3 EV steps)
Shutter priority
No
Yes
Min. shutter speed
15 sec
30 sec
Max. shutter speed
1/2000 sec
1/2000 sec
Built-in flash
External flash
Viewfinder
Optical (tunnel)
Electronic
White balance presets
6
7
Screen size
1.5"
3"
Screen resolution
118,000 dots
1,040,000 dots
Video capture
Max. video resolution
1920x1080 (60p/50p/30p/25p/24p)
Storage types
Compact Flash (Type I)
SD/SDHC/SDXC
USB
USB 1.0
USB 2.0 (480 Mbit/sec)
HDMI
Wireless
GPS
Battery
Canon NB-L1H 840 mAh Lithium-Ion
NB-13L lithium-ion battery
Weight
230 g
399 g
Dimensions
87 x 57 x 28 mm
115 x 77.9 x 51.4 mm
Year
2003
2017




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Diagonal

Diagonal is calculated by the use of Pythagorean theorem:
Diagonal =  w² + h²
where w = sensor width and h = sensor height

Canon S400 DIGITAL ELPH diagonal

The diagonal of S400 DIGITAL ELPH sensor is not 1/1.8 or 0.56" (14.1 mm) as you might expect, but approximately two thirds of that value - 8.89 mm. If you want to know why, see sensor sizes.

w = 7.11 mm
h = 5.33 mm
Diagonal =  7.11² + 5.33²   = 8.89 mm

Canon G1 X Mark III diagonal

w = 22.30 mm
h = 14.90 mm
Diagonal =  22.30² + 14.90²   = 26.82 mm


Surface area

Surface area is calculated by multiplying the width and the height of a sensor.

S400 DIGITAL ELPH sensor area

Width = 7.11 mm
Height = 5.33 mm

Surface area = 7.11 × 5.33 = 37.90 mm²

G1 X Mark III sensor area

Width = 22.30 mm
Height = 14.90 mm

Surface area = 22.30 × 14.90 = 332.27 mm²


Pixel pitch

Pixel pitch is the distance from the center of one pixel to the center of the next measured in micrometers (µm). It can be calculated with the following formula:
Pixel pitch =   sensor width in mm  × 1000
sensor resolution width in pixels

S400 DIGITAL ELPH pixel pitch

Sensor width = 7.11 mm
Sensor resolution width = 2306 pixels
Pixel pitch =   7.11  × 1000  = 3.08 µm
2306

G1 X Mark III pixel pitch

Sensor width = 22.30 mm
Sensor resolution width = 6026 pixels
Pixel pitch =   22.30  × 1000  = 3.7 µm
6026


Pixel area

The area of one pixel can be calculated by simply squaring the pixel pitch:
Pixel area = pixel pitch²

You could also divide sensor surface area with effective megapixels:
Pixel area =   sensor surface area in mm²
effective megapixels

S400 DIGITAL ELPH pixel area

Pixel pitch = 3.08 µm

Pixel area = 3.08² = 9.49 µm²

G1 X Mark III pixel area

Pixel pitch = 3.7 µm

Pixel area = 3.7² = 13.69 µm²


Pixel density

Pixel density can be calculated with the following formula:
Pixel density =  ( sensor resolution width in pixels )² / 1000000
sensor width in cm

One could also use this formula:
Pixel density =   effective megapixels × 1000000  / 10000
sensor surface area in mm²

S400 DIGITAL ELPH pixel density

Sensor resolution width = 2306 pixels
Sensor width = 0.711 cm

Pixel density = (2306 / 0.711)² / 1000000 = 10.52 MP/cm²

G1 X Mark III pixel density

Sensor resolution width = 6026 pixels
Sensor width = 2.23 cm

Pixel density = (6026 / 2.23)² / 1000000 = 7.3 MP/cm²


Sensor resolution

Sensor resolution is calculated from sensor size and effective megapixels. It's slightly higher than maximum (not interpolated) image resolution which is usually stated on camera specifications. Sensor resolution is used in pixel pitch, pixel area, and pixel density formula. For sake of simplicity, we're going to calculate it in 3 stages.

1. First we need to find the ratio between horizontal and vertical length by dividing the former with the latter (aspect ratio). It's usually 1.33 (4:3) or 1.5 (3:2), but not always.

2. With the ratio (r) known we can calculate the X from the formula below, where X is a vertical number of pixels:
(X × r) × X = effective megapixels × 1000000    →   
X =  effective megapixels × 1000000
r
3. To get sensor resolution we then multiply X with the corresponding ratio:

Resolution horizontal: X × r
Resolution vertical: X

S400 DIGITAL ELPH sensor resolution

Sensor width = 7.11 mm
Sensor height = 5.33 mm
Effective megapixels = 4.00
r = 7.11/5.33 = 1.33
X =  4.00 × 1000000  = 1734
1.33
Resolution horizontal: X × r = 1734 × 1.33 = 2306
Resolution vertical: X = 1734

Sensor resolution = 2306 x 1734

G1 X Mark III sensor resolution

Sensor width = 22.30 mm
Sensor height = 14.90 mm
Effective megapixels = 24.20
r = 22.30/14.90 = 1.5
X =  24.20 × 1000000  = 4017
1.5
Resolution horizontal: X × r = 4017 × 1.5 = 6026
Resolution vertical: X = 4017

Sensor resolution = 6026 x 4017


Crop factor

Crop factor or focal length multiplier is calculated by dividing the diagonal of 35 mm film (43.27 mm) with the diagonal of the sensor.
Crop factor =   43.27 mm
sensor diagonal in mm


S400 DIGITAL ELPH crop factor

Sensor diagonal in mm = 8.89 mm
Crop factor =   43.27  = 4.87
8.89

G1 X Mark III crop factor

Sensor diagonal in mm = 26.82 mm
Crop factor =   43.27  = 1.61
26.82

35 mm equivalent aperture

Equivalent aperture (in 135 film terms) is calculated by multiplying lens aperture with crop factor (a.k.a. focal length multiplier).

S400 DIGITAL ELPH equivalent aperture

Crop factor = 4.87
Aperture = f2.8 - f4.9

35-mm equivalent aperture = (f2.8 - f4.9) × 4.87 = f13.6 - f23.9

G1 X Mark III equivalent aperture

Crop factor = 1.61
Aperture = f2.8 - f5.6

35-mm equivalent aperture = (f2.8 - f5.6) × 1.61 = f4.5 - f9

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