Sigma DP3 Merrill vs. Ricoh GR

Comparison

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DP3 Merrill image
vs
GR image
Sigma DP3 Merrill Ricoh GR
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Megapixels
15.40
16.20
Max. image resolution
4928 x 3264
Note: Sigma DP3 Merrill uses Foveon X3 image sensor, which is a new type of sensor that has 3 layers of photoelements stacked together in 1 pixel location. Traditional CCD/CMOS sensors have 1 pixel for 1 color, whereas Foveon sensor captures all 3 colors (blue, green, and red) at every pixel.

Sensor

Sensor type
Foveon
CMOS
Sensor size
24 x 16 mm
23.6 x 15.7 mm
Sensor resolution
4806 x 3204
4929 x 3286
Diagonal
28.84 mm
28.35 mm
Sensor size comparison
Sensor size is generally a good indicator of the quality of the camera. Sensors can vary greatly in size. As a general rule, the bigger the sensor, the better the image quality.

Bigger sensors are more effective because they have more surface area to capture light. An important factor when comparing digital cameras is also camera generation. Generally, newer sensors will outperform the older.

Learn more about sensor sizes »

Actual sensor size

Note: Actual size is set to screen → change »
vs
1.04 : 1
(ratio)
Sigma DP3 Merrill Ricoh GR
Surface area:
384.00 mm² vs 370.52 mm²
Difference: 13.48 mm² (4%)
DP3 Merrill sensor is slightly bigger than GR sensor (only 4% difference).
Pixel pitch
4.99 µm
4.79 µm
Pixel pitch tells you the distance from the center of one pixel (photosite) to the center of the next. It tells you how close the pixels are to each other.

The bigger the pixel pitch, the further apart they are and the bigger each pixel is. Bigger pixels tend to have better signal to noise ratio and greater dynamic range.
Difference: 0.2 µm (4%)
Pixel pitch of DP3 Merrill is approx. 4% higher than pixel pitch of GR.
Pixel area
24.9 µm²
22.94 µm²
Pixel or photosite area affects how much light per pixel can be gathered. The larger it is the more light can be collected by a single pixel.

Larger pixels have the potential to collect more photons, resulting in greater dynamic range, while smaller pixels provide higher resolutions (more detail) for a given sensor size.
Relative pixel sizes:
vs
Pixel area difference: 1.96 µm² (9%)
A pixel on Sigma DP3 Merrill sensor is approx. 9% bigger than a pixel on Ricoh GR.
Pixel density
4.01 MP/cm²
4.36 MP/cm²
Pixel density tells you how many million pixels fit or would fit in one square cm of the sensor.

Higher pixel density means smaller pixels and lower pixel density means larger pixels.
Difference: 0.35 µm (9%)
Ricoh GR has approx. 9% higher pixel density than Sigma DP3 Merrill.
To learn about the accuracy of these numbers, click here.



Specs

Sigma DP3 Merrill
Ricoh GR
Crop factor
1.5
1.53
Total megapixels
15.40
16.90
Effective megapixels
15.40
16.20
Optical zoom
1x
1x
Digital zoom
No
ISO sensitivity
100-6400
Auto, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, 6400, 12800, 16000, 25600
RAW
Manual focus
Normal focus range
30 cm
Macro focus range
10 cm
Focal length (35mm equiv.)
75 mm
28 mm
Aperture priority
Yes
Max. aperture
f2.8
f2.8 - f16
Max. aperture (35mm equiv.)
f4.2
f4.3 - f24.5
Metering
Multi, Center-weighted, Spot
Exposure compensation
±4 EV (in 1/3 EV steps)
Shutter priority
Yes
Min. shutter speed
300 sec
Max. shutter speed
1/4000 sec
Built-in flash
External flash
Viewfinder
None
Optical (optional)
White balance presets
9
Screen size
3"
3"
Screen resolution
920,000 dots
1,230,000 dots
Video capture
Max. video resolution
Storage types
SD/SDHC/SDXC
USB
USB 2.0 (480 Mbit/sec)
USB 2.0 (480 Mbit/sec)
HDMI
Wireless
GPS
Battery
Rechargeable DB-65 lithium-ion battery
Weight
330 g
245 g
Dimensions
122 x 67 x 59 mm
117 x 61 x 34.7 mm
Year
2013
2013




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Diagonal

Diagonal is calculated by the use of Pythagorean theorem:
Diagonal =  w² + h²
where w = sensor width and h = sensor height

Sigma DP3 Merrill diagonal

w = 24.00 mm
h = 16.00 mm
Diagonal =  24.00² + 16.00²   = 28.84 mm

Ricoh GR diagonal

w = 23.60 mm
h = 15.70 mm
Diagonal =  23.60² + 15.70²   = 28.35 mm


Surface area

Surface area is calculated by multiplying the width and the height of a sensor.

DP3 Merrill sensor area

Width = 24.00 mm
Height = 16.00 mm

Surface area = 24.00 × 16.00 = 384.00 mm²

GR sensor area

Width = 23.60 mm
Height = 15.70 mm

Surface area = 23.60 × 15.70 = 370.52 mm²


Pixel pitch

Pixel pitch is the distance from the center of one pixel to the center of the next measured in micrometers (µm). It can be calculated with the following formula:
Pixel pitch =   sensor width in mm  × 1000
sensor resolution width in pixels

DP3 Merrill pixel pitch

Sensor width = 24.00 mm
Sensor resolution width = 4806 pixels
Pixel pitch =   24.00  × 1000  = 4.99 µm
4806

GR pixel pitch

Sensor width = 23.60 mm
Sensor resolution width = 4929 pixels
Pixel pitch =   23.60  × 1000  = 4.79 µm
4929


Pixel area

The area of one pixel can be calculated by simply squaring the pixel pitch:
Pixel area = pixel pitch²

You could also divide sensor surface area with effective megapixels:
Pixel area =   sensor surface area in mm²
effective megapixels

DP3 Merrill pixel area

Pixel pitch = 4.99 µm

Pixel area = 4.99² = 24.9 µm²

GR pixel area

Pixel pitch = 4.79 µm

Pixel area = 4.79² = 22.94 µm²


Pixel density

Pixel density can be calculated with the following formula:
Pixel density =  ( sensor resolution width in pixels )² / 1000000
sensor width in cm

One could also use this formula:
Pixel density =   effective megapixels × 1000000  / 10000
sensor surface area in mm²

DP3 Merrill pixel density

Sensor resolution width = 4806 pixels
Sensor width = 2.4 cm

Pixel density = (4806 / 2.4)² / 1000000 = 4.01 MP/cm²

GR pixel density

Sensor resolution width = 4929 pixels
Sensor width = 2.36 cm

Pixel density = (4929 / 2.36)² / 1000000 = 4.36 MP/cm²


Sensor resolution

Sensor resolution is calculated from sensor size and effective megapixels. It's slightly higher than maximum (not interpolated) image resolution which is usually stated on camera specifications. Sensor resolution is used in pixel pitch, pixel area, and pixel density formula. For sake of simplicity, we're going to calculate it in 3 stages.

1. First we need to find the ratio between horizontal and vertical length by dividing the former with the latter (aspect ratio). It's usually 1.33 (4:3) or 1.5 (3:2), but not always.

2. With the ratio (r) known we can calculate the X from the formula below, where X is a vertical number of pixels:
(X × r) × X = effective megapixels × 1000000    →   
X =  effective megapixels × 1000000
r
3. To get sensor resolution we then multiply X with the corresponding ratio:

Resolution horizontal: X × r
Resolution vertical: X

DP3 Merrill sensor resolution

Sensor width = 24.00 mm
Sensor height = 16.00 mm
Effective megapixels = 15.40
r = 24.00/16.00 = 1.5
X =  15.40 × 1000000  = 3204
1.5
Resolution horizontal: X × r = 3204 × 1.5 = 4806
Resolution vertical: X = 3204

Sensor resolution = 4806 x 3204

GR sensor resolution

Sensor width = 23.60 mm
Sensor height = 15.70 mm
Effective megapixels = 16.20
r = 23.60/15.70 = 1.5
X =  16.20 × 1000000  = 3286
1.5
Resolution horizontal: X × r = 3286 × 1.5 = 4929
Resolution vertical: X = 3286

Sensor resolution = 4929 x 3286


Crop factor

Crop factor or focal length multiplier is calculated by dividing the diagonal of 35 mm film (43.27 mm) with the diagonal of the sensor.
Crop factor =   43.27 mm
sensor diagonal in mm


DP3 Merrill crop factor

Sensor diagonal in mm = 28.84 mm
Crop factor =   43.27  = 1.5
28.84

GR crop factor

Sensor diagonal in mm = 28.35 mm
Crop factor =   43.27  = 1.53
28.35

35 mm equivalent aperture

Equivalent aperture (in 135 film terms) is calculated by multiplying lens aperture with crop factor (a.k.a. focal length multiplier).

DP3 Merrill equivalent aperture

Crop factor = 1.5
Aperture = f2.8

35-mm equivalent aperture = (f2.8) × 1.5 = f4.2

GR equivalent aperture

Crop factor = 1.53
Aperture = f2.8 - f16

35-mm equivalent aperture = (f2.8 - f16) × 1.53 = f4.3 - f24.5

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