Casio Exilim EX-S10 vs. Nikon Coolpix L25

Comparison

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Exilim EX-S10 image
vs
Coolpix L25 image
Casio Exilim EX-S10 Nikon Coolpix L25
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Megapixels
10.10
10.10
Max. image resolution
3648 x 2736
3648 x 2736

Sensor

Sensor type
CCD
n/a
Sensor size
1/2.3" (~ 6.16 x 4.62 mm)
1/3" (~ 4.8 x 3.6 mm)
Sensor resolution
3665 x 2756
3665 x 2756
Diagonal
7.70 mm
6.00 mm
Sensor size comparison
Sensor size is generally a good indicator of the quality of the camera. Sensors can vary greatly in size. As a general rule, the bigger the sensor, the better the image quality.

Bigger sensors are more effective because they have more surface area to capture light. An important factor when comparing digital cameras is also camera generation. Generally, newer sensors will outperform the older.

Learn more about sensor sizes »

Actual sensor size

Note: Actual size is set to screen → change »
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1.65 : 1
(ratio)
Casio Exilim EX-S10 Nikon Coolpix L25
Surface area:
28.46 mm² vs 17.28 mm²
Difference: 11.18 mm² (65%)
S10 sensor is approx. 1.65x bigger than L25 sensor.
Note: You are comparing cameras of different generations. There is a 4 year gap between Casio S10 (2008) and Nikon L25 (2012). All things being equal, newer sensor generations generally outperform the older.
Pixel pitch
1.68 µm
1.31 µm
Pixel pitch tells you the distance from the center of one pixel (photosite) to the center of the next. It tells you how close the pixels are to each other.

The bigger the pixel pitch, the further apart they are and the bigger each pixel is. Bigger pixels tend to have better signal to noise ratio and greater dynamic range.
Difference: 0.37 µm (28%)
Pixel pitch of S10 is approx. 28% higher than pixel pitch of L25.
Pixel area
2.82 µm²
1.72 µm²
Pixel or photosite area affects how much light per pixel can be gathered. The larger it is the more light can be collected by a single pixel.

Larger pixels have the potential to collect more photons, resulting in greater dynamic range, while smaller pixels provide higher resolutions (more detail) for a given sensor size.
Relative pixel sizes:
vs
Pixel area difference: 1.1 µm² (64%)
A pixel on Casio S10 sensor is approx. 64% bigger than a pixel on Nikon L25.
Pixel density
35.4 MP/cm²
58.3 MP/cm²
Pixel density tells you how many million pixels fit or would fit in one square cm of the sensor.

Higher pixel density means smaller pixels and lower pixel density means larger pixels.
Difference: 22.9 µm (65%)
Nikon L25 has approx. 65% higher pixel density than Casio S10.
To learn about the accuracy of these numbers, click here.



Specs

Casio S10
Nikon L25
Crop factor
5.62
7.21
Total megapixels
10.30
10.44
Effective megapixels
10.10
10.10
Optical zoom
3x
Digital zoom
Yes
ISO sensitivity
Auto, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600
RAW
Manual focus
Normal focus range
40 cm
Macro focus range
15 cm
Focal length (35mm equiv.)
36 - 108 mm
Aperture priority
No
Max. aperture
f2.8 - f5.3
Max. aperture (35mm equiv.)
f15.7 - f29.8
n/a
Metering
Centre weighted, Multi-pattern, Spot
Exposure compensation
±2 EV (in 1/3 EV steps)
Shutter priority
No
Min. shutter speed
4 sec
Max. shutter speed
1/2000 sec
Built-in flash
External flash
Viewfinder
None
None
White balance presets
5
Screen size
2.7"
Screen resolution
230,160 dots
Video capture
Max. video resolution
Storage types
MultiMedia, SDHC, Secure Digital
USB
USB 2.0 (480 Mbit/sec)
HDMI
Wireless
GPS
Battery
Casio NP-60 Li Ion battery
Weight
113 g
Dimensions
94.2 x 54.6 x 15.0 mm
Year
2008
2012




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Diagonal

Diagonal is calculated by the use of Pythagorean theorem:
Diagonal =  w² + h²
where w = sensor width and h = sensor height

Casio S10 diagonal

The diagonal of S10 sensor is not 1/2.3 or 0.43" (11 mm) as you might expect, but approximately two thirds of that value - 7.7 mm. If you want to know why, see sensor sizes.

w = 6.16 mm
h = 4.62 mm
Diagonal =  6.16² + 4.62²   = 7.70 mm

Nikon L25 diagonal

The diagonal of L25 sensor is not 1/3 or 0.33" (8.5 mm) as you might expect, but approximately two thirds of that value - 6 mm. If you want to know why, see sensor sizes.

w = 4.80 mm
h = 3.60 mm
Diagonal =  4.80² + 3.60²   = 6.00 mm


Surface area

Surface area is calculated by multiplying the width and the height of a sensor.

S10 sensor area

Width = 6.16 mm
Height = 4.62 mm

Surface area = 6.16 × 4.62 = 28.46 mm²

L25 sensor area

Width = 4.80 mm
Height = 3.60 mm

Surface area = 4.80 × 3.60 = 17.28 mm²


Pixel pitch

Pixel pitch is the distance from the center of one pixel to the center of the next measured in micrometers (µm). It can be calculated with the following formula:
Pixel pitch =   sensor width in mm  × 1000
sensor resolution width in pixels

S10 pixel pitch

Sensor width = 6.16 mm
Sensor resolution width = 3665 pixels
Pixel pitch =   6.16  × 1000  = 1.68 µm
3665

L25 pixel pitch

Sensor width = 4.80 mm
Sensor resolution width = 3665 pixels
Pixel pitch =   4.80  × 1000  = 1.31 µm
3665


Pixel area

The area of one pixel can be calculated by simply squaring the pixel pitch:
Pixel area = pixel pitch²

You could also divide sensor surface area with effective megapixels:
Pixel area =   sensor surface area in mm²
effective megapixels

S10 pixel area

Pixel pitch = 1.68 µm

Pixel area = 1.68² = 2.82 µm²

L25 pixel area

Pixel pitch = 1.31 µm

Pixel area = 1.31² = 1.72 µm²


Pixel density

Pixel density can be calculated with the following formula:
Pixel density =  ( sensor resolution width in pixels )² / 1000000
sensor width in cm

One could also use this formula:
Pixel density =   effective megapixels × 1000000  / 10000
sensor surface area in mm²

S10 pixel density

Sensor resolution width = 3665 pixels
Sensor width = 0.616 cm

Pixel density = (3665 / 0.616)² / 1000000 = 35.4 MP/cm²

L25 pixel density

Sensor resolution width = 3665 pixels
Sensor width = 0.48 cm

Pixel density = (3665 / 0.48)² / 1000000 = 58.3 MP/cm²


Sensor resolution

Sensor resolution is calculated from sensor size and effective megapixels. It's slightly higher than maximum (not interpolated) image resolution which is usually stated on camera specifications. Sensor resolution is used in pixel pitch, pixel area, and pixel density formula. For sake of simplicity, we're going to calculate it in 3 stages.

1. First we need to find the ratio between horizontal and vertical length by dividing the former with the latter (aspect ratio). It's usually 1.33 (4:3) or 1.5 (3:2), but not always.

2. With the ratio (r) known we can calculate the X from the formula below, where X is a vertical number of pixels:
(X × r) × X = effective megapixels × 1000000    →   
X =  effective megapixels × 1000000
r
3. To get sensor resolution we then multiply X with the corresponding ratio:

Resolution horizontal: X × r
Resolution vertical: X

S10 sensor resolution

Sensor width = 6.16 mm
Sensor height = 4.62 mm
Effective megapixels = 10.10
r = 6.16/4.62 = 1.33
X =  10.10 × 1000000  = 2756
1.33
Resolution horizontal: X × r = 2756 × 1.33 = 3665
Resolution vertical: X = 2756

Sensor resolution = 3665 x 2756

L25 sensor resolution

Sensor width = 4.80 mm
Sensor height = 3.60 mm
Effective megapixels = 10.10
r = 4.80/3.60 = 1.33
X =  10.10 × 1000000  = 2756
1.33
Resolution horizontal: X × r = 2756 × 1.33 = 3665
Resolution vertical: X = 2756

Sensor resolution = 3665 x 2756


Crop factor

Crop factor or focal length multiplier is calculated by dividing the diagonal of 35 mm film (43.27 mm) with the diagonal of the sensor.
Crop factor =   43.27 mm
sensor diagonal in mm


S10 crop factor

Sensor diagonal in mm = 7.70 mm
Crop factor =   43.27  = 5.62
7.70

L25 crop factor

Sensor diagonal in mm = 6.00 mm
Crop factor =   43.27  = 7.21
6.00

35 mm equivalent aperture

Equivalent aperture (in 135 film terms) is calculated by multiplying lens aperture with crop factor (a.k.a. focal length multiplier).

S10 equivalent aperture

Crop factor = 5.62
Aperture = f2.8 - f5.3

35-mm equivalent aperture = (f2.8 - f5.3) × 5.62 = f15.7 - f29.8

L25 equivalent aperture

Aperture is a lens characteristic, so it's calculated only for fixed lens cameras. If you want to know the equivalent aperture for Nikon L25, take the aperture of the lens you're using and multiply it with crop factor.

Crop factor for Nikon L25 is 7.21

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