Pentax K10D vs. Nikon D3000

Comparison

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K10D image
vs
D3000 image
Pentax K10D Nikon D3000
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Megapixels
10.00
10.20
Max. image resolution
3872 x 2592
3872 x 2592

Sensor

Sensor type
CCD
CCD
Sensor size
23.5 x 15.7 mm
23.6 x 15.8 mm
Sensor resolution
3873 x 2582
3898 x 2616
Diagonal
28.26 mm
28.40 mm
Sensor size comparison
Sensor size is generally a good indicator of the quality of the camera. Sensors can vary greatly in size. As a general rule, the bigger the sensor, the better the image quality.

Bigger sensors are more effective because they have more surface area to capture light. An important factor when comparing digital cameras is also camera generation. Generally, newer sensors will outperform the older.

Learn more about sensor sizes »

Actual sensor size

Note: Actual size is set to screen → change »
vs
1 : 1.01
(ratio)
Pentax K10D Nikon D3000
Surface area:
368.95 mm² vs 372.88 mm²
Difference: 3.93 mm² (1%)
D3000 sensor is slightly bigger than K10D sensor (only 1% difference).
Note: You are comparing cameras of different generations. There is a 3 year gap between Pentax K10D (2006) and Nikon D3000 (2009). All things being equal, newer sensor generations generally outperform the older.
Pixel pitch
6.07 µm
6.05 µm
Pixel pitch tells you the distance from the center of one pixel (photosite) to the center of the next. It tells you how close the pixels are to each other.

The bigger the pixel pitch, the further apart they are and the bigger each pixel is. Bigger pixels tend to have better signal to noise ratio and greater dynamic range.
Difference: 0.02 µm (0.3%)
Pixel pitch of K10D is approx. 0.3% higher than pixel pitch of D3000.
Pixel area
36.84 µm²
36.6 µm²
Pixel or photosite area affects how much light per pixel can be gathered. The larger it is the more light can be collected by a single pixel.

Larger pixels have the potential to collect more photons, resulting in greater dynamic range, while smaller pixels provide higher resolutions (more detail) for a given sensor size.
Relative pixel sizes:
vs
Pixel area difference: 0.24 µm² (0.7%)
A pixel on Pentax K10D sensor is approx. 0.7% bigger than a pixel on Nikon D3000.
Pixel density
2.72 MP/cm²
2.73 MP/cm²
Pixel density tells you how many million pixels fit or would fit in one square cm of the sensor.

Higher pixel density means smaller pixels and lower pixel density means larger pixels.
Difference: 0.0099999999999998 µm (0.4%)
Nikon D3000 has approx. 0.4% higher pixel density than Pentax K10D.
To learn about the accuracy of these numbers, click here.



Specs

Pentax K10D
Nikon D3000
Crop factor
1.53
1.52
Total megapixels
10.80
10.75
Effective megapixels
10.00
10.20
Optical zoom
Digital zoom
No
No
ISO sensitivity
Auto, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600
Auto, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, (plus 3200 with boost)
RAW
Manual focus
Normal focus range
Macro focus range
Focal length (35mm equiv.)
Aperture priority
Yes
Yes
Max. aperture
Max. aperture (35mm equiv.)
n/a
n/a
Metering
Centre weighted, Multi-segment, Spot
3D Matrix metering II, Center weighted, Spot
Exposure compensation
±3 EV (in 1/3 EV, 1/2 EV steps)
±5 EV (in 1/3 EV steps)
Shutter priority
Yes
Yes
Min. shutter speed
Bulb+30 sec
30 sec
Max. shutter speed
1/4000 sec
1/4000 sec
Built-in flash
External flash
Viewfinder
Optical (pentaprism)
Optical (pentamirror)
White balance presets
7
12
Screen size
2.5"
3"
Screen resolution
210,000 dots
230,000 dots
Video capture
Max. video resolution
Storage types
Secure Digital
SDHC, Secure Digital
USB
USB 2.0 (480 Mbit/sec)
USB 2.0 (480 Mbit/sec)
HDMI
Wireless
GPS
Battery
Lithium-Ion rechargeable
Lithium-Ion EN-EL9a rechargeable battery
Weight
710 g
536 g
Dimensions
141.5 x 101 x 70 mm
126 x 97 x 64 mm
Year
2006
2009




Choose cameras to compare

vs

Diagonal

Diagonal is calculated by the use of Pythagorean theorem:
Diagonal =  w² + h²
where w = sensor width and h = sensor height

Pentax K10D diagonal

w = 23.50 mm
h = 15.70 mm
Diagonal =  23.50² + 15.70²   = 28.26 mm

Nikon D3000 diagonal

w = 23.60 mm
h = 15.80 mm
Diagonal =  23.60² + 15.80²   = 28.40 mm


Surface area

Surface area is calculated by multiplying the width and the height of a sensor.

K10D sensor area

Width = 23.50 mm
Height = 15.70 mm

Surface area = 23.50 × 15.70 = 368.95 mm²

D3000 sensor area

Width = 23.60 mm
Height = 15.80 mm

Surface area = 23.60 × 15.80 = 372.88 mm²


Pixel pitch

Pixel pitch is the distance from the center of one pixel to the center of the next measured in micrometers (µm). It can be calculated with the following formula:
Pixel pitch =   sensor width in mm  × 1000
sensor resolution width in pixels

K10D pixel pitch

Sensor width = 23.50 mm
Sensor resolution width = 3873 pixels
Pixel pitch =   23.50  × 1000  = 6.07 µm
3873

D3000 pixel pitch

Sensor width = 23.60 mm
Sensor resolution width = 3898 pixels
Pixel pitch =   23.60  × 1000  = 6.05 µm
3898


Pixel area

The area of one pixel can be calculated by simply squaring the pixel pitch:
Pixel area = pixel pitch²

You could also divide sensor surface area with effective megapixels:
Pixel area =   sensor surface area in mm²
effective megapixels

K10D pixel area

Pixel pitch = 6.07 µm

Pixel area = 6.07² = 36.84 µm²

D3000 pixel area

Pixel pitch = 6.05 µm

Pixel area = 6.05² = 36.6 µm²


Pixel density

Pixel density can be calculated with the following formula:
Pixel density =  ( sensor resolution width in pixels )² / 1000000
sensor width in cm

One could also use this formula:
Pixel density =   effective megapixels × 1000000  / 10000
sensor surface area in mm²

K10D pixel density

Sensor resolution width = 3873 pixels
Sensor width = 2.35 cm

Pixel density = (3873 / 2.35)² / 1000000 = 2.72 MP/cm²

D3000 pixel density

Sensor resolution width = 3898 pixels
Sensor width = 2.36 cm

Pixel density = (3898 / 2.36)² / 1000000 = 2.73 MP/cm²


Sensor resolution

Sensor resolution is calculated from sensor size and effective megapixels. It's slightly higher than maximum (not interpolated) image resolution which is usually stated on camera specifications. Sensor resolution is used in pixel pitch, pixel area, and pixel density formula. For sake of simplicity, we're going to calculate it in 3 stages.

1. First we need to find the ratio between horizontal and vertical length by dividing the former with the latter (aspect ratio). It's usually 1.33 (4:3) or 1.5 (3:2), but not always.

2. With the ratio (r) known we can calculate the X from the formula below, where X is a vertical number of pixels:
(X × r) × X = effective megapixels × 1000000    →   
X =  effective megapixels × 1000000
r
3. To get sensor resolution we then multiply X with the corresponding ratio:

Resolution horizontal: X × r
Resolution vertical: X

K10D sensor resolution

Sensor width = 23.50 mm
Sensor height = 15.70 mm
Effective megapixels = 10.00
r = 23.50/15.70 = 1.5
X =  10.00 × 1000000  = 2582
1.5
Resolution horizontal: X × r = 2582 × 1.5 = 3873
Resolution vertical: X = 2582

Sensor resolution = 3873 x 2582

D3000 sensor resolution

Sensor width = 23.60 mm
Sensor height = 15.80 mm
Effective megapixels = 10.20
r = 23.60/15.80 = 1.49
X =  10.20 × 1000000  = 2616
1.49
Resolution horizontal: X × r = 2616 × 1.49 = 3898
Resolution vertical: X = 2616

Sensor resolution = 3898 x 2616


Crop factor

Crop factor or focal length multiplier is calculated by dividing the diagonal of 35 mm film (43.27 mm) with the diagonal of the sensor.
Crop factor =   43.27 mm
sensor diagonal in mm


K10D crop factor

Sensor diagonal in mm = 28.26 mm
Crop factor =   43.27  = 1.53
28.26

D3000 crop factor

Sensor diagonal in mm = 28.40 mm
Crop factor =   43.27  = 1.52
28.40

35 mm equivalent aperture

Equivalent aperture (in 135 film terms) is calculated by multiplying lens aperture with crop factor (a.k.a. focal length multiplier).

K10D equivalent aperture

Aperture is a lens characteristic, so it's calculated only for fixed lens cameras. If you want to know the equivalent aperture for Pentax K10D, take the aperture of the lens you're using and multiply it with crop factor.

Crop factor for Pentax K10D is 1.53

D3000 equivalent aperture

Aperture is a lens characteristic, so it's calculated only for fixed lens cameras. If you want to know the equivalent aperture for Nikon D3000, take the aperture of the lens you're using and multiply it with crop factor.

Crop factor for Nikon D3000 is 1.52

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